Atlantic salmon is anadromous fish. It spends a part of his life in the sea, but it spawns in fresh water. Atlantic salmon lives in the North Atlantic and it spawns in the rivers of Europe and North America. When is in the sea is swimming in the sea around Greenland.
Atlantic salmon has an elongated body that is hydrodynamic shape and large mouth. On the back and flanks is silver gray color that is poured into the green. The head, back and hips are covered with dark spots. Scales are large and easily visible. It grows from 100 to 130 cm, rarely up to 150 cm. Its weight is on average between 6 to 8 kg, but we can also found 25 kg or big examples.
Atlantic salmon farming
The cultivation of Atlantic salmon goes back to the 19th century, when the United Kingdom had established hatcheries. The purpose at that time was to produce fry for the reconstruction of river populations for sport fishing. However, marine fish farms in Norway in 1960 were the first one to install floating cages in fjord with a desire to market adult salmon. Based on the hybrid species, which are the result from crossing a different types of Norwegian salmon and local species, has first evolved growing in Europe and then in all temperate seas in both hemispheres. Rapid increase in production at the end of 90th of the last century led to problems related to market saturation. This crisis has led to major restructuring in the sector.
Atlantic salmon is fully reproduced in captivity, with carefully selected female born in captivity. The eggs are removed from females ready for spawning, and mixed with milky (male seed) to fertilize them. Then they are placed in incubation tanks. Fry are hatched from eggs within four to six weeks after fertilization.
The first phase corresponds to the larval stage, which lasts from four to six weeks until the larvae get rid of yolk sac and becomes the young salmon, which is able to eat. Then comes the second stage: the young salmon are transferred to the fresh water swimming pool (or in floating cages in the lake), where it remains from one to two years as it is necessary for “saumonification”, the acquisition of biological properties that enable it to live in seawater.
Since is a carnivorous fish, it feeds with grains from fish, meal and oil (50%), but also with other ingredients such as vegetable flour and vegetable extracts (cereals, beans, soy …), vitamins, minerals, and astaxanthin, which is (natural or synthetic) pigment essential for health, which gives it its characteristic color. The composition of food and the rhythm of feeding conditions at the farm and catch and process execution are elements that contribute significantly to the quality of the finished product.
Firm pink to orange-red flesh and pleasant delicious smell makes salmon one of the most popular oily fish. Culinary very interesting fish, it can be used for all kinds of preparation, baked, smoked or raw (on sushi). Pieces of salmon can braise with selected spices and herbs, fillets and steaks can be baked in a pan or grilled or fried in a completely non-beer bread. Smoked is a real specialty. Salmon is a rich source of omega-3 fats. Appropriate seasoning for salmon is curry, tarragon, garlic, pepper, parsley, white pepper and lemon.